Portuguese incursion and control of the Swahili Coast in the late 16th century ended the golden age of the archipelago, although the Omani Arabs returned to power less than a century later. Today, many of the meandering streets and high town houses of old Stone Town remain untouched and visitors can walk between the sultan's palace, the Portuguese fort and gardens, merchants' houses, the House of Wonders the, and the Turkish baths of the old city. Day-long spice tours to working plantations present visitors the chance to observe the cultivation of cloves, vanilla, nutmeg, cinnamon, and other spices that have made the island celebrated.
The Zanzibar's coastline offers some of the best beaches in the world; on the east coast, waves break over coral reefs and sand bars offshore, and low tide reveals small pools of starfish, small minnows, and anemones. Up north, ocean swimming is much less susceptible to the tides, and smooth beaches and white sand make for astounding days in the sun.
The port city of Stone Town dictate the west coast, and although the beaches of Mangapwani, where slave caves are visible at low tide and nearby Bububu are less than half an hour's drive away, a night or two spent on the east or north cost is well worth the extra hour it takes to drive there. The Chole Island Marine Park just off Stone Town and nearby Prison, Grave, and Snake Islands; make a stimulating day-trip and a good break from exploring the winding passageways of the old city.
On the south coast of Zanzibar lies the Menai Bay Conservation Area, a sea turtle protection area for the endangered species that come to breed on the island. Roads to the southeast coast take visitors through the Jozani Forest, home to Zanzibar's rare Red Colobus monkeys and a number of other primate and small antelope species.